Forestry and Environment

Bamboo
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Bamboo comprises a group of perennial species producing new shoots on an annual basis that develop, depending on species, into erect culms. In general, bamboo is vegetatively multiplied, using culm or branch sections. The cuttings are planted at 200-600 per hectare, depending on species and environment, and generally take 5-8 years to form a complete canopy. This quick growing and versatile plant of the grass family is one of the most important non-timber forest products, yielding raw materials for a wide range of uses and goods ranging from subsistence to commercial food (the young shoots), to building and furniture.

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Biodiversity
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Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity.

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Cacao
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The cacao ISP envisions increasing cacao bean yield from 1 mt per hectare to 1.6 mt per hectare thereby increasing income of smallhold cacao farmers in the countryside. The country is one of the areas with favorable agro-climatic conditions for cacao growing. Thus, given appropriate S&T interventions, massive cacao bean production is technically and economically feasible to meet local and global demands.

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Industrial Tree Plantation
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The Philippine wood industry is still in its uphill situation and still very much alive and vibrant in Mindanao, especially the Caraga Region, which is dubbed as the Timber Corridorof the country. Unlike during the early 1980s which was considered the golden era of the Philippine wood industry, government still allows the harvesting of wood from the natural stand or forest. During the last 15 years, extraction of wood from the natural forests has been gradually regulated until eventually banned in 2010 due to the indiscriminate illegal logging activities in the uplands. Thus, the local sources of the country's wood-based industries are now totally dependent on plantation timber.

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Rubber
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Rubber, elastic substance obtained from the exudations of certain tropical plants (natural rubber) or derived from petroleum and natural gas (synthetic rubber). Because of its elasticity, resilience, and toughness, rubber is the basic constituent of the tires used in automotive vehicles, aircraft, and bicycles.

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Sago
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Just like many other palms, nearly all other parts of the sago plant are used for subsistence. For the sago palm, its trunk is rich in starch which when extracted from the plant is used as a staple food for humans. Sago palm matures at around 8 to 12 years. To maximize starch production, harvesting must be done within this period (before the fruiting stage). As soon as the palm reaches maturity, the stem is cut and the starch is extracted by either mechanical or manual means. Although harvesting entails cutting of the whole palm, the economic life of sago is theoretically perpetual due to continuous production of suckers to replace the harvested mother palms.

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